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We thank Whitney Stark for copyediting the English language. We also wish to thank those who helped with the recruitment of participants via Facebook. Moreover, we are grateful to the mothers and girls for openly sharing their perceptions.

They review the following four aspects of a manuscript: Relevance of study question, Appropriateness of qualitative method, Transparency of procedures, and Soundness of interpretive approach RATS. Competing interests. JS recruited the participants, developed interview protocols, and acquired, translated, and coded the data. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript, and agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work. Jihan Salad, Email: gro. Petra Verdonk, Email: ln. Fijgje de Boer, Email: ln.

Tineke A. Abma, Email: ln. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Int J Equity Health. Published online Aug Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

Corresponding author.

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Received Jan 27; Accepted Jul This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Introduction Participation in Human Papillomavirus HPV vaccination and Papanicolaou Screening Pap smears is low among ethnic minorities in the Netherlands and hardly any information is available about the cervical cancer prevention methods of Somali women living in the diaspora.

Results In this study, we have identified perceived barriers to the use of preventive measures across three major themes: 1 Somali women and preventive healthcare; 2 Language, knowledge, and negotiating decisions; and 3 Sexual standards, culture, and religion. Conclusions Current measures in the Netherlands to prevent women from developing somali cancer hardly reach Somali women because these women perceive these kinds of preventative measures as not personally relevant.

Dantiina u hagrataan? Open in a separate window. Table 1 Somali people in the Netherlands. The Somali community in the Netherlands is comprised of over 34, people [ 42 ]. The first group of refugees, particularly higher educated individuals, fled to the Netherlands after the Somali civil war broke out in [ 943 ]. The second group of refugees, mainly lower educated individuals, fled to the Netherlands after [ sxey44 ]. In Somalia, female genital mutilation FGM is image practice [ 45 ], next to male circumcision [ 46 ].

These factors have been linked to a prevalence of mental and physical problems [ 104748 image. In the Netherlands, a variety of Somali foundations and associations provide support for social integration [ 44 ].

Most information is communicated orally because of the prevalent oral culture within the Somali community [ 41 ]. Somali health belief model [ 21 ]. Methods A qualitative approach has been used in this study to gain insight into the personal sex scene mom son and views of Somali women concerning Sxey, and to discuss sensitive topics such as sex [ 22 ]. Recruitment methods and site selection The executing researcher JSwho is a young female of Somali origin and studied Health Sciences in Amsterdam, approached Somali organizations and Community Health Services CHSs through gatekeepers who had access to the Somali community.

Table 2 Characteristics of Somali women who have participated in individual interviews. However, daughters are below the age of 12 Reject, but would accept now 9 Somali mother Somalia 33 31 No education Accept. However, daughters are below the age of 12 Reject, because pregnant.

Unknown whether participant would accept or reject Not applicable 12 Young Somali woman Egypt 20 Not applicable Middle-level applied education Not invited, but would reject Not applicable 13 Young Somali woman The Netherlands 18 Not applicable University of applied science Rejected by mother.

Participant would accept the vaccine now Not applicable, but would reject Pap smears 14 Young Somali woman Somalia 21 Four University Participant lost the invitation letter. However, girl received 2 injections. According to her, she completed the HPV vaccination series Not applicable 16 Young Somali woman Saudi Arabia 20 Not applicable Middle-level applied education Participant does not know whether she received the invitation letter.

Participant would reject the vaccine Not applicable 17 Young Somali woman The Netherlands 19 Not applicable Middle-level applied education Reject Not applicable 18 Young Somali woman Syria 19 Not applicable Middle-level applied education Rejected by mother, but would accept the vaccine now and in the past Not applicable 19 Young Somali woman The Netherlands 19 Not applicable University Reject Not applicable 20 Somali mother Full nude pictures pon hub 35 30 No sxey Does not remember an invitation, but would accept the vaccine Did not receive an invitation, but would accept.

Ethical considerations Information and informed consent letters were available in Dutch for the young women and in Dutch and Somali for the mothers. Measures and procedures Semi-structured interviews and natural group discussions were held.

Data analysis Data somali and data analysis were conducted simultaneously and iteratively. Table 3 The girl of thematic content analysis of the interviews and natural group image. Phases Themes Phase 1 Initial themes identified After six interviews: interview with three mothers and three young women. Results In this study, we identified perceived barriers to the use of measures against cervical cancer across three major themes: 1 Somali women and preventive healthcare; 2 Language, knowledge, and somali decisions; and 3 Sexual standards, culture, and sxey.

The participants associate the HPV vaccination with unknown and negative side effects menstrual complications, infertility and even death sxey, and becoming an object of research: You do not know what the future consequence of the vaccine will be and what will happen to my child.

However, one mother states that Dutch male GPs could not be the problem, because in Somalia women also visit male gynecologists and it is not perceived of as a problem: Prevention girl brought by Allah. Language, knowledge, and negotiating decisions Another major barrier is related to language. A major source of information on the prevention of cervical cancer is cultural peers: We do not understand the situation of this country.

Sexual standards, culture, and religion Susceptibility to HPV is perceived to be low for Somali girls because they are expected to not engage in premarital sex.

However, the young women are also critical: Perite teen think it is stupid [the double sexual standard]. After receiving information, participants often have stated that boys should be vaccinated against HPV or that men should be tested for it before marriage to protect girls and women: I think it is scary, because what if [you get HPV]? The stigma and discrimination of homosexuality within the Somali community is recognized: I personally think that they girl people] should do whatever they want.

Discussion This study explores the perceptions of Somali women in the Netherlands about the prevention of cervical cancer. Strengths and limitations to the study This study has some limitations. Conclusions To our knowledge, this study girl one of the few studies in Europe somali explores the perceptions of Somali women regarding the prevention of cervical cancer. Footnotes 1 This poem has been written for this study and is intended for distribution. Competing interests The image declare that they have no competing interests.

Contributor Image Jihan Salad, Email: gro. References 1. Health Council of the Netherlands.

Background

Population screening for cervical cancer. The Hague: Health Council of the Netherlands; The National Immunisation Programme in the Netherlands. Bilthoven: National Immunisation Programme; Sexual behavior and factors associated with girl age at first intercourse image HPV vaccine uptake among young women in Germany: implications for HPV vaccination policies. BMC Public Health.

Vaccination coverage National Vaccination Programme Netherlands. Bilthoven: National Vaccination Programme; Cancer mortality pussy on pussy pics among first and second generation migrants in sxey Netherlands: Convergence toward the rates somali the native Dutch population. Int J Cancer.

Male circumcision, penile Human Papillomavirus infection, and cervical cancer in female partners. New Engl J Med. Male circumcision, religion, and infectious diseases: An ecologic analysis of developing countries.

BMC Infectious Diseases. Wolf S. Utrecht; Female genital mutilation in the Netherlands: prevalence, incidence and determinants.

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Cervical screening: Perceptions and barriers to uptake among Somali women in Camden. Public Health. Culturally informed views on cancer screening: a qualitative research study of the differences between younger and older Somali immigrant women. Completion of the Human Papillomavirus vaccination series lags in Somali adolescents. J Low Gen Tract Dis. Cervical cancer screening adherence among Somali immigrants and refugees to the United States. Health Care Women Int. Central gender theoretical concepts in health research: the state of the art.

J Epidemiol Community Health. Crenshaw K. Mapping the margins: Intersectionality, identity politics, and violence against women of color. Stanford Law Rev. The Health Belief Model. Health behavior and health education: Theory, research, and practice. Introduction to qualitative research. Sorgdrager W. Wet medisch-wetenschappelijk onderzoek met mensen [Act medical research involving human subjects]. supergirls pussy

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Parental decisional strategies regarding HPV vaccination before media debates: A focus group study. J Health Comm. Determinants of HPV vaccination intentions among Dutch girls and their mothers: a cross-sectional study. Britten N. Qualitative interviews in medical research. Brit Med J. Madriz E.

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Focus groups in feminist research. Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks: Sage; somali Green J, Thorogood N. Qualitative methods for health research. Los Angeles: Sage; Carlson J. Avoiding traps in member checking. Qual Rep. Braun V, Clarke V. Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qual Res Psychol.

Malik S. A qualitative study into the perceptions of Dutch Turkish and Dutch Moroccan mothers on HPV vaccination for their 12 years old daughters. Intercultural consultations: investigation of factors that deter non-English speaking women from attending their general practitioners for cervical sxey. Sexual health among young Somali women in Sweden: Somali with conflicting culturally determined sexual ideologies. Athar S. Sex education for Muslim youth and their parents. Indianapolis: Indiana University School of Medicine; Woonink Girl.

Language differences in qualitative research: Is meaning lost in translation? Eur J Ageing. Login or sign up. Logging in Remember me on this computer not recommended on public or shared computers.

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